Zero-Sum Game - GeeksforGeeks (2024)

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    Zero-Sum Game:
    A zero-sum game is one in which no wealth is created or destroyed. So, in a two-player zero-sum game, whatever one player wins, the other loses. In this game, we can include at least two and a maximum to an infinite number of contestants. It assumes a version of perfect competition and perfect information.

    Let us consider a game in which n contestant takes part, and contestant i has Ni courses of action available to him. Then the number of outcomes to a play of the game will be N1, N2,……………, Nn. So, consider a possible outcome θ result in payment p(i, θ) to a contestant i. Then, the game is called a Zero-Sum Game, if every possible result θ, we have
    Zero-Sum Game - GeeksforGeeks (1)

    Lets us understand this by taking an example, three-man A, B, and C playing poker and put 100 bucks all, the winner takes all money. If A wins the game he gains 200 bucks but B and C lose 100 bucks each. So, the total payment to all contestants after the play is zero. Similarly, if B or C wins too.

    In financial markets, futures and options are considered non-zero games because contracts represent agreements between two parties and, if one investor loses, the asset is transferred to another investor. Poker, Gambling, Matching Pennies, Chess, Tennis are also some examples of Zero-Sum Game.



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    FAQs

    Zero-Sum Game - GeeksforGeeks? ›

    A zero-sum game is one in which no wealth is created or destroyed. So, in a two-player zero-sum game, whatever one player wins, the other loses. In this game, we can include at least two and a maximum to an infinite number of contestants.

    What is an example of a zero-sum game? ›

    Zero-sum games are found in many contexts. Poker and gambling are popular examples of zero-sum games since the sum of the amounts won by some players equals the combined losses of the others. Games like chess and tennis, where there is one winner and one loser, are also zero-sum games.

    What is the zero-sum algorithm? ›

    Well, we can use an algorithm called the zero-sum game also known as the minimax algorithm. A zero-sum game is a representation of math when two-players, or each participants in a game, gain or loses a point. It balances the losses or gains of the points from each player.

    What is the zero-sum game in math? ›

    A two-player game is called a zero-sum game if the sum of the payoffs to each player is constant for all possible outcomes of the game. More specifically, the terms (or coordinates) in each payoff vector must add up to the same value for each payoff vector. Such games are sometimes called constant-sum games instead.

    What is a zero-sum game mindset? ›

    In psychology, zero-sum thinking refers to the perception that a given situation is like a zero-sum game, where one person's gain is equal to another person's loss.

    What is a real life example of a non-zero sum game? ›

    What is a Non Zero Sum Game? A non zero sum game is a situation where there is a net benefit or net loss to the system based on the game's outcome. An example of what should be considered a non zero sum game is a contest between a trade ship and a pirate ship, although it may look like one at first glance.

    Is Rock Paper Scissors a zero-sum game? ›

    A rock beats scissors, scissors beat paper by cutting it, and paper beats rock by covering it. In this simulation, the computer has two different strategies that it can follow. Rock, paper, scissors is an example of a zero-sum game without perfect information. Whenever one player wins, the other loses.

    What's the opposite of a zero-sum game? ›

    In game theory, situation where one decision maker's gain (or loss) does not necessarily result in the other decision makers' loss (or gain). In other words, where the winnings and losses of all players do not add up to zero and everyone can gain: a win-win game.

    What is zero-sum game structure? ›

    Zero-sum games are typically characterised by competition, where one participant's success directly comes at the expense of another participant's failure. In a zero-sum game, the total value or wealth in the system remains the same before and after the interactions among participants.

    What is an example of a two person zero-sum game? ›

    Tic-tac-toe is a simpler example of a two-player zero-sum game. To a game theorist, a strategy for the first player describes the first move and where to move on future opportunities under all possible circ*mstance. This leads to an enormous number of strategies.

    How do you beat the zero-sum game? ›

    In a zero-sum game, the best strategy is often to try to maximize your own gain while minimizing your opponent's gain.

    What is the zero-sum paradigm? ›

    Zero-sum Paradigm Term Analysis. Next. Symbols. The zero-sum paradigm is the assumption that politics is a zero-sum competition between different racial groups—meaning that what is good for people of color must necessarily hurt white people, and vice-versa.

    What is another name for a zero-sum game? ›

    winner-take-all. hard-line. high-stake. win-or-lose. high stakes.

    What is an example of zero sum thinking? ›

    In a negotiation when one negotiator thinks that they can only gain at the expense of the other party (i.e., that mutual gain is not possible). In the context of social group competition, the belief that more resources for one group (e.g., immigrants) means less for others (e.g., non-immigrants).

    What is the zero-sum fallacy? ›

    It's the one that says wealth is fixed, so that if someone gains more of it, it must be at the expense of someone else having less. It's often nicknamed the pizza pie fallacy because, with a fixed size of pie, a bigger slice for one person means less pie left for others.

    Which theory believes in a zero-sum game? ›

    The concept of zero-sum games comes from game theory, a theoretical approach within economics that uses mathematics to understand how rational people make decisions. In a zero-sum game, the game begins and ends with the same total amount of a particular resource. There can be two or more players.

    Which of the following best describes a zero-sum game? ›

    Mathematicians, economists and analysts use the term zero-sum game throughout game theory and economic theory. It describes the financial gains of one party that cause an equal amount of loss for the other party.

    What is an example of a zero-sum negotiation? ›

    It is a zero sum game in which one person's gains always come at the expense of another. Bargaining over the price of a product or service is an example in which every dollar advantage you gain by getting the price lowered, the other party loses by receiving one dollar less.

    What is a zero-sum game in relationships? ›

    When this concept is applied to relationships, a zero-sum game mentality reflects the belief that one partner's gain directly results in the other partner's loss. In other words, the relationship is seen as a kind of battleground, where every interaction or decision has a winner and a loser.

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